Maintaining your Mac should be part of a regular routine and Apple’s OS X has a number of built in tools to assist.
Disk Utility can be found in Applications>Utilities>Disk Utility and presents the following simple dashboard,
On the left hand side window is a list of your disk drives, both internal and external drives and additionally any Time Machine backup drives. Across the top of the dashboard are a number of tools for your use and it makes sense to read the Apple Support Pages before using these tools.
As part of my maintenance routine on the multiple Macs on my system, I run First Aid on my drives. In most circumstances the routine runs smoothly and self fixes any drive errors but on occasion the resulting report will provide alert messages.
Repairing disk permissions is a more typical maintenance action and I have the following list of messages useful that Apple advise “that you can safely ignore.”
As stated on some of my other posts, I am an enthusiastic amateur and would welcome any additional comments or feedback.